AETA President’s Report – Spring 2019

Categories: President's Message
Tags: No Tags
Comments: Comments Off
Published on: April 17, 2019

By Dr. Matt Iager, 2019 AETA President

Greetings to you from AETA. As spring business gears up, don’t forget to take time to interact with friends and family and thank the farmers and ranchers who provide the avenue for our services.

AETA has been busy focusing and planning for a fun and successful 2019! In January, IETS hosted a great conference in New Orleans and expressed their gratitude to affiliate organizations, such as ours. AETA is strongly poised as a leader in our industry. We are very fortunate in our current financial position, goals for our organization, membership involvement, and relationships to allied industries. However, with every organization, we realize our fruitfulness was achieved by many hard-working individuals working for the good of each member, so complacency is never an option.

In March, our Board of Directors met at the convention site in Colorado Springs for our winter board meeting. We made plans for the year and are excited about the many achievements made by each committee, along with ideas to inspire new progress for our committees. We are also very proud and thankful for the many AETA members that volunteer their time and talents to serve these important roles. It’s never too late to volunteer, so please reach out to me or the committee chairs to let us know your interests.

Our social media has been extremely active with over 1,500 Facebook “likes” on the AETA page and over 7,000 individuals being reached in the last 30 days about our posts and promotion. Be sure to “like” AETA on Facebook! We also hope you enjoy the advertising in national breed magazines and also the exposure on the Internet, via webcast, blogs, and news posts from various organizations, all of which continue to brand AETA’s relevance and importance in today’s technology.

The convention committee is finalizing topics and speakers for the convention. You can be sure this convention will be special and memorable. The social events will take place at the resort, which is incredibly tasteful, with a lake, beach area, and Cheyenne Mountain directly adjacent to the resort hotel. The research committee is hosting a poster contest at this year‘s convention, so be sure to look for more information about this new opportunity!

We look forward to the 2019 AETA & CETA joint annual convention, October 24–26, in beautiful Colorado Springs. I would like to thank all of you for the opportunity to serve AETA and look forward to seeing you in Colorado!

Save the date for the 2019 AETA-CETA/ACTE Annual Meeting!

Categories: Annual Meeting
Tags: No Tags
Comments: Comments Off
Published on: April 17, 2019

The 2019 AETA-CETA/ACTE will be held from October 24–26, 2019, in Colorado Springs, Colorado. The conference will be held at the Cheyenne Mountain Resort.

All of the AETA scientific, social, and exhibitor information can be found on the AETA Annual Convention page as it becomes available. Check back often!

Colorado Springs is a wonderful city to hold this convention. Below you will find some links to help you plan your stay.

Garden of the Gods
Pikes Peak Region
Olympic Training Center
Cheyenne Mountain Zoo
Manitou Springs

This is a very small list of the many attractions that Colorado Springs has to offer. Please check out Visit Colorado Springs to customize your stay.

We look forward to seeing you all in beautiful Colorado in October!

Sincerely,

AETA

AETA Small Ruminant Ovum-Pick-Up Brief

Categories: Practice Tips
Tags: No Tags
Comments: Comments Off
Published on: April 17, 2019

Submitted by Dr. Kevin Lindell

Recently, Dr. Rachael Gately, Tufts Veterinary Field Service, had the opportunity (through a collaborative research project) to explore the realm of small ruminant ovum pick-up (OPU)/in vitro fertilization (IVF).

We thought it would be interesting to the membership to relay our initial experiences and challenges.

To date, donors have been collected after superstimulation, using protocols somewhat similar to those we use in cattle. Without prior manipulation of the estrus cycle, a SR CIDR is placed on day −7. On day 0 donors receive PG and 1.5 cc of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) AM/PM; day 1 donors receive 1.0 cc of FSH AM/PM and then 1.0 cc of FSH on the morning of day 2. Oocyte collection is performed on day 4, resulting in a coasting period (time between the last FSH injection and time of collection) of approximately 48 hours. Variables such as FSH dosage, number of total injections, and coasting period seemed to make a significant impact on follicular recruitment, size, and competency, although the data set is very small to this point.

Oocyte collection is performed under general anesthesia using a short-needle system. A threaded small ruminant 18-ga OPU needle, attached directly to aspiration tubing (without using a metal rod) has been a relatively simple and successful method for oocyte collection, in conjunction with our regular aspiration/vacuum pump. Although we would ultimately like to offer small ruminant OPU as a purely laparoscopic procedure, it has been difficult to stabilize the ovaries well enough, so we have instead opted to externalize the ovaries briefly for aspiration.

As this procedure seems to be growing in interest amongst our clientele, we are looking forward to additional small ruminant oocyte collection trials and embryo development results.

The abstract below from a recent review article was also a useful tool as we initially organized equipment, consumables, and donor protocols.

Theriogenology (86) 2016

Recent advances in in vitro embryo production in small ruminants

By Maria-Teresa Paramio*, Dolors Izquierdo

ABSTRACT

To increase productivity in the small ruminant industry, the genetic material of these species should be improved. In vitro embryo production could be an important technology to reach this goal by combining selected male and female gametes. In the world, marketing of in vitro-produced embryos is an economical activity which is progressing rapidly in cattle but is practically nonexistent in small ruminants. Since the birth of the first lamb and kid using IVF in the 80s, several studies have been carried out; however, results still are inconsistent and unpredictable. Moreover, significantly fewer research groups are working on embryo production in small ruminants than in cattle and pigs. Although conventional methodologies of oocyte IVM, IVF, and IVC in small ruminants give rise to blastocysts, significant variation exists between experiments. One important reason for these differences is the heterogeneity of the pool of oocytes recovered from ovaries from slaughtered females. Oocyte quality, also referred to as competence, is the key factor in the success of in vitro embryo production programs. Different criteria are used to select the best oocytes for fertilization, such as follicle size, oocyte diameter and morphological appearance, and Brilliant Cresyl Blue staining. New research lines aimed at improving oocyte competence are: (1) arresting nuclear maturation in vitro allowing optimal capacitation of cytoplasm, (2) growing oocytes inside the follicle, and (3) identification of biomarkers of oocyte competence in granulosa and cumulus cells and metabolites in the follicular fluid.

Practice Tip – Battery Backup

Categories: Practice Tips
Tags: No Tags
Comments: Comments Off
Published on: April 17, 2019

Submitted by Dr. Pat Comyn

This jump starter has come in really handy for those times when I am breeding or placing embryos in a place with no power. With all the moisture we have had in my area in the last year (92 inches), it is sometimes really difficult to get a truck near the working area. Also, trucks near the working area = dented trucks. So this gadget is great for keeping the thaw bath warm. It also charges cell phones.  

 

Comparison of iSperm to current accepted methods for raw semen analysis

Categories: Evidence-Based ET
Tags: No Tags
Comments: Comments Off
Published on: April 17, 2019

Download the poster

Articles of Interest

Categories: Research Publications
Tags: No Tags
Comments: Comments Off
Published on: April 17, 2019

Significant heparin effect on bovine embryo development during sexed in vitro fertilization

Consequences of bovine oocyte maturation, fertilization or early embryo development in vitro versus in vivo: Implications for blastocyst yield and blastocyst quality

Sex control by Zfy siRNA in the dairy cattle

Daily administration of a GnRH analogue enhances sperm quality in bucks during the non-breeding season

Maternal age influences the number of primordial follicles in the ovaries of yearling Angus heifers

Role of cAMP modulator supplementations during oocyte in vitro maturation in domestic animals

Factors in cattle affecting embryo transfer pregnancies in recipient animals

Comparison of luteolysis and timed artificial insemination pregnancy rates after administration of PGF2α in the muscle or the ischiorectal fossa in cattle

Large-scale transcriptional analysis of bovine embryo biopsies in relation to pregnancy success after transfer to recipients

Effects of supplementation of medium with different antioxidants during in vitro maturation of bovine oocytes on subsequent embryo production

Influence of bovine serum albumin and fetal bovine serum supplementation during in vitro maturation on lipid and mitochondrial behaviour in oocytes and lipid accumulation in bovine embryos

50 Survival of sexed ivf-derived bovine embryos frozen at different preimplementation stages of development

141 Bovine embryo development rats are affected when oocytes are matured in different vials containing hepes/bicarbonate buffered medium

The ischiorectal fossa: an alternative route for the administration of prostaglandin in cattle

Effects of nutrition and genetics on fertility in dairy cows

Categories: Research Publications
Tags: No Tags
Comments: Comments Off
Published on: April 17, 2019

https://www.publish.csiro.au/RD/RD18364

Reproduction, Fertility and Development 31(1) 40-54 https://doi.org/10.1071/RD18364
Published online: 3 December 2018

Alex Bach

Institucio´Catalana de Recerca i Estudis Avanc¸ats (Barcelona 08007, Spain) and Department of Ruminant Production, Institut de Recerca i Tecnologies Agroalimenta`ries (Caldes de Montbui, 08140 Spain). Email: alex.bach@icrea.cat

Optimal reproductive function in dairy cattle is mandatory to maximise profits. Dairy production has progressively improved milk yields, but, until recently, the trend in reproductive performance has been the opposite. Nutrition, genetics, and epigenetics are important aspects affecting the reproductive performance of dairy cows. In terms of nutrition, the field has commonly fed high-energy diets to dairy cows during the 3 weeks before calving in an attempt to minimise postpartum metabolic upsets. However, in the recent years it has become clear that feeding high-energy diets during the dry period, especially as calving approaches, may be detrimental to cow health, or at least unnecessary because cows, at that time, have low energy requirements and sufficient intake capacity. After calving, dairy cows commonly experience a period of negative energy balance (NEB) characterised by low blood glucose and high non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA) concentrations. This has both direct and indirect effects on oocyte quality and survival. When oocytes are forced to depend highly on the use of energy resources derived from body reserves, mainly NEFA, their development is compromised due to a modification in mitochondrial b-oxidation. Furthermore, the indirect effect of NEB on reproduction is mediated by a hormonal (both metabolic and reproductive) environment. Some authors have attempted to overcome the NEB by providing the oocyte with external sources of energy via dietary fat. Conversely, fertility is affected by a large number of genes, each with small individual effects, and thus it is unlikely that the decline in reproductive function has been directly caused by genetic selection for milk yield per se. It is more likely that the decline is the consequence of a combination of homeorhetic mechanisms (giving priority to milk over other functions) and increased metabolic pressure (due to a shortage of nutrients) with increasing milk yields. Nevertheless, genetics is an important component of reproductive efficiency, and the incorporation of genomic information is allowing the detection of genetic defects, degree of inbreeding and specific single nucleotide polymorphisms directly associated with reproduction, providing pivotal information for genetic selection programs. Furthermore, focusing on improving bull fertility in gene selection programs may represent an interesting opportunity. Conversely, the reproductive function of a given cow depends on the interaction between her genetic background and her environment, which ultimately modulates gene expression. Among the mechanisms modulating gene expression, microRNAs (miRNAs) and epigenetics seem to be most relevant. Several miRNAs have been described to play active roles in both ovarian and testicular function, and epigenetic effects have been described as a consequence of the nutrient supply and hormonal signals to which the offspring was exposed at specific stages during development. For example, there are differences in the epigenome of cows born to heifers and those born to cows, and this epigenome seems to be sensitive to the availability of methyl donor compounds of the dam. Lastly, recent studies in other species have shown the relevance of paternal epigenetic marks, but this aspect has been, until now, largely overlooked in dairy cattle.

Additional keywords: Amino acids, Epigenetics, Fat, Glucose, Minerals, Reproduction, Vitamins

Antral follicle population in prepubertal and pubertal heifers

Categories: Research Publications
Tags: No Tags
Comments: Comments Off
Published on: April 17, 2019

https://www.publish.csiro.au/RD/RD18344

Reproduction, Fertility and Development 31(1) 10-16 https://doi.org/10.1071/RD18344
Published online: 3 December 2018

M. M. Seneda (A,D), F. Morotti (A), A. F. Zangirolamo (A,B), N. C. da Silva (A), K. Sanches (A), W. Blaschi (C), and T. R. R. Barreiros (C)

A Universidade Estadual de Londrina, Laborato´ rio de Reproduc¸a˜o Animal, Departamento de Clı´nicas Veterina´rias – Centro de Cieˆncias Agra´rias – Universidade Estadual de Londrina, Londrina, Parana, Brazil. B National Institute of Science and Technology for Dairy Production Chain (INCT–LEITE), Universidade Estadual de Londrina, Rodovia Celso Garcia Cid-Campus Universita´rio, PO Box 10011, Londrina, Parana 86057-970, Brazil. C Universidade Estadual do Norte do Parana´ , Laborato´ rio de Biotecnologia da Reproduc¸a˜o Animal, Departamento de Veterina´ria e Produc¸a˜o Animal, Rodovia BR – 369, Km 54, Vila Maria, Bandeirantes, Parana 86360-000, Brazil. D Corresponding author. Email: marcelo.seneda@uel.br

The antral follicle count (AFC) is an important tool in the selection of bovine females destined for biotechnology. However, little is known about AFC in prepubertal and pubertal heifers. Some challenges inherent to the physiology of young females must be considered to achieve efficient rates with different procedures, such as ovum pick-up and IVF. This paper covers some important topics about ovarian physiology related to the population of antral follicles and reproductive efficiency in young female cattle.

Additional keywords: Bos indicus, Bos taurus, calf, embryo production.

Cryopreservation and microfluidics: a focus on the oocyte

Categories: Research Publications
Tags: No Tags
Comments: Comments Off
Published on: April 17, 2019

https://www.publish.csiro.au/RD/RD18326

Reproduction, Fertility and Development 31(1) 93-104  https://doi.org/10.1071/RD18326
Published online: 3 December 2018

Gary D. Smith (A,C) and Shuichi Takayama (B)

A Departments of Obstetrics & Gynecology, Physiology, and Urology, Reproductive Sciences Program, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48108, USA. B Wallace H. Coulter Department of Biomedical Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology & Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA 30332, USA. C Corresponding author. Email: smithgd@umich.edu

Cryopreservation of gametes and embryos has played a critical role in successful assisted reproductive technologies in rodents, domestic farm species, endangered species and humans. With improved success, and changing needs, the utility of gamete or embryo cryopreservation has escalated. In this review we address some of the foundational history of mammalian cryobiology, species-specific utilities, fundamental understandings of cryoprotectant agents and their use in slow-rate freezing and vitrification, and expand on the recent success and uses of oocyte vitrification and warming. In the area of female gamete cryopreservation, emphasis will be placed on not just cell survival, but also perceived and measured affects of cryopreservation on intracellular structures and functions that affect subsequent completion of meiosis with chromatin segregation fidelity, normal fertilisation and embryonic developmental competence. We compare and contrast data from cow, mouse and humans with a focus on using species-comparative developmental biology to guide future studies for improving methodologies for all species. The application of the relatively new technology microfluidics is discussed in relation to moving gradually (i.e. changing the solution over cells in an automated fashion) compared with the stepwise manual movement of cells through changing solution currently used. This use of microfluidics to change the way cells are exposed to cryoprotectant agents can provide new insights into the effects of osmotic stress and cellular strain rates previously unappreciated, precise methods of computational and biological data acquisition and appreciation of morphometric changes to cellular structure in response to different osmotic stresses and strain rates achieved with varying cryoprotectant exposures. Collectively, these devices and methodologies provide a means of achieving incremental improvement of oocyte and zygote cryopreservation with normalised and improved developmental competence. Finally, we look to the past and the future to acknowledge the accomplishment of leaders in the field of mammalian gamete and embryo cryobiology, their inspirational works, their tireless dissemination of information and the potential of new technologies in bioengineering to improve the efficiency and safety of gamete and embryo cryopreservation.

Additional keywords: embryos, gametes, vitrification.

page 1 of 1
Welcome , today is Thursday, November 14, 2019