Comment on requirements for donors of embryos exporting USA to Australia

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Published on: July 6, 2018

by Pat Comyn
AETA Education Committee Chair

I recently collected embryos from a donor for export of those embryos to Australia. As part of the visit, I collected both an EDTA tube and a red top blood tube for submission for BVD (Bovine Pestivirus) testing in keeping with section 4 (below) of the Australian embryo import requirements.

I wanted to do an ELISA due to lower cost and turn around being faster compared to the VI. However, I had not heard of an ELISA for BVD being done on peripheral WBC (Buffy coat) and suspected that the description of the ELISA test in the IREGs was in error (the Australia IREGs was updated 4/18). After consultation with Pat Phillips, DVM (Hawkeye Breeders – embryo exporter), David Duxbury, DVM (AETA Government Liaison Committee Chair) and their inquiries to APHIS – Madison WI, we found that BVD ELISA on whole unclotted blood was being done at Indiana Animal Disease Diagnostic Laboratory / Purdue University College of Veterinary Medicine. The results of the whole blood ELISA are acceptable for export to Australia. The client savings for the buffy coat ELISA were considerable as compared to viral isolation and the turn around was excellent (one day VS 2 weeks).

Section 4 is below.

4Bovine pestivirus

Prior to the export of this consignment of embryos each female donor gave a negative result to one of the following tests for bovine pestivirus:

  • an antigen-capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) on peripheral blood leucocytes

or

  • a virus isolation test on blood or serum

[The veterinary certificate must indicate the option that applies. The table must include dates of sampling for test, type of tests used, test results.]

Vitamin Importance for Reproduction

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Published on: July 6, 2018

by Cole Ratzburg
AETA Education Committee
B.S. M.S. Reproductive Physiology

Hopefully everyone is having a good summer and getting plenty of rain. Since I had an article on trace minerals a couple issues ago I figured I would write an article on the importance of vitamins for reproduction. All though the effect vitamins have on reproduction aren’t as well known as trace minerals, they still have an important role in positively affecting reproduction in cattle. Essentially vitamins can be broken down into water soluble and fat-soluble forms. The fat-soluble vitamins A, D, E, and K are more important for cattle due to their availability in the diet. Fat soluble vitamins do not need to be supplemented daily and can be supplied via mineral programs or in an injectable form.

Vitamin D is important for calcium, phosphorus metabolism, and bone growth but due to cows being able to synthesize vitamin D from sunlight it is not as critical to supplement in the long daylight hours. During the winter months with short daylight hours and depending on the forage available, cows may need more vitamin D. Vitamin A deals with vision, reproduction, and immune function. Levels fluctuate based on their availability in feed throughout the year. Vitamin A’s main role is to maintain the epithelial tissue found in areas like the lining of the reproductive tract. Vitamin A is available in ample amounts in the spring and summer months through green leafy forages. Cattle coming off the summer grass typically have a 2-3-month storage of vitamin A. The amount of vitamin A in the forage can fluctuate based on the quality of the forage and how it was processed.

I think the biggest effect that vitamin deficiencies have on embryo production is during the fall and winter months. Any flushes/transfers that occur in the winter and fall time may need cows to have good supplementation of vitamins A and D due to their limited availability.

Practice Tip

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Published on: July 6, 2018

by Pay Comyn
AETA Education Committee Chair

I saw a good reminder of dangers of using frozen cold pacs to chill down fresh transported embryos. A client accidentally froze several syringes of rabies vaccine meant for their cattle by placing the syringes directly on frozen ice packs. So embryo straws with holding solution placed directly on frozen ice packs would be risky. When using frozen ice packs to keep fresh embryos cool, one should place cloth or paper over the ice packs to protect the embryos.

Use of FSH in two different regimens for ovarian superstimulation prior to ovum pick up and in vitro embryo production in Holstein cows

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Published on: July 6, 2018

Authors: Júlio César Barboza da Silva, Roberta Machado Ferreira, Milton Maturana Filho, Julianne de Rezende Naves, Thiago Santin, Guilherme Pugliesi, Ed Hoffmann Madureira

Publication: Theriogenology

Publisher: Elsevier

Date of Publication: 1 March, 2017

Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28166990

Effects of Ovum Pick‐up Frequency and FSH Stimulation: A Retrospective Study on Seven Years of Beef Cattle In Vitro Embryo Production

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Published on: July 6, 2018

Authors: R De Roover, JMN Feuganf, PEJ Bois, G Genicot, Ch Hanzen

Publication: Reproduction in Domestic Animals

Publisher: John Wiley and Sons

Date: Mar 6, 2008

Link: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1439-0531.2007.00873.x

Superstimulation prior to the ovum pick-up to improve in vitro embryo production in lactating and non-lactating Holstein cows

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Published on: July 6, 2018

Authors: L.M. Vieira, C.A. Rodrigues, A. Castro Netto, B.M. Guerreiro, C.R.A. Silveira, R.J.C. Moreira, M.F. Sá Filho, G.A. Bó, R.J. Mapletoft, P.S. Baruselli

Publication: Theriogenology

Publisher: Elsevier

Date of Publication: 15 July 2014

Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24839924

Short communication: Follicle superstimulation before ovum pick-up for in vitro embryo production in Holstein cows

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Published on: July 6, 2018

Authors: Louise H. Oliveira, Carlos P. Sanches,Adriano S. Seddon, Marcio B. Veras, Flávio A. Lima, Pedro L.J. Monteiro, Milo C. Wiltbank, Roberto Sartori

Publication: Journal of Dairy Science

Publisher: Elsevier

Date of Publication: November 2016

Link: https://www.journalofdairyscience.org/article/S0022-0302(16)30571-9/pdf

Articles of Interest

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Published on: July 6, 2018

In vitro sperm quality and DNA integrity of SexedULTRA sex-sorted sperm compared to non-sorted bovine sperm

 

Angiocoupling between the dominant follicle and corpus luteum during waves 1 and 2 in Bos taurus heifers

 

Improved uterine immune mediators in Holstein cows supplemented with rumen-protected methionine and discovery of neutrophil extracellular traps (NET)

 

Hormonal strategy to reduce suckled beef cow handling for timed artificial insemination with sex-sorted semen

 

Differential release of cell-signaling metabolites by male and female bovine embryos cultured in vitro

 

Synchronization treatments previous to natural breeding anticipate and improve the pregnancy rate of postpartum primiparous beef cows

 

Heat-shock-induced cathepsin B activity during IVF and culture compromises the developmental competence of bovine embryos

 

Associations between dairy cow inter-service interval and probability of conception

 

μ-Calpain (CAPN1), calpastatin (CAST), and growth hormone receptor (GHR) genetic effects on Angus beef heifer performance traits and reproduction

 

Assessment of the temperature cut-off point by a commercial intravaginal device to predict parturition in Piedmontese beef cows

 

Variations in bovine embryo production between individual donors for OPU-IVF are closely related to glutathione concentrations in oocytes during in vitro maturation

 

Eventual re-vitrification or storage in liquid nitrogen vapor does not jeopardize the practical handling and transport of vitrified pig embryos

 

Cryopreservation and in vitro culture of white-tailed deer ovarian tissue

 

Preparation, characterization and application of long-acting FSH analogs for assisted reproduction

 

Aromatase inhibitors: A new approach for controlling ovarian function in cattle

 

Pursuit of a method for single administration of pFSH for superstimulation in cattle: What we have learned

 

Progesterone-releasing devices for cattle estrus induction and synchronization: Device optimization to anticipate shorter treatment durations and new device developments

 

Potential of connected devices to optimize cattle reproduction

 

Vaginal temperature measurement by a wireless sensor for predicting the onset of calving in Japanese Black cows

 

Effect of different chorionic gonadotropins on final growth of the dominant follicle in Bos indicus cows

 

Effect of different shipping temperatures (∼22 °C vs. ∼7 °C) and holding media on blastocyst development after overnight holding of immature equine cumulus-oocyte complexes

 

A recovery time after warming restores mitochondrial function and improves developmental competence of vitrified ovine oocytes

 

Additional small dose of prostaglandin F at timed artificial insemination failed to improve pregnancy risk of lactating dairy cows

 

The relationship between external auditory canal temperature and onset of estrus and ovulation in beef heifers

 

Follicular response and oocyte production following variations in ovarian stimulation in goats

 

Inhibition of apoptosis by caspase inhibitor Z-VAD-FMK improves cryotolerance of in vitro derived bovine embryos

 

Promoter variants of OAS1 gene are associated with reproductive performance and incidence of normal calving in cattle

 

The ability to predict pregnancy loss in cattle with ELISAs that detect pregnancy associated glycoproteins is antibody dependent

 

http://www.sciencemag.org/news/2018/02/first-cow-embryonic-stem-cells-could-lead-healthier-more-productive-livestock

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