June 2017 President’s Letter

Categories: President's Message
Tags: No Tags
Comments: Comments Off
Published on: June 30, 2017

As the spring calving season is wrapping up, most of you, like myself, are probably full-throttle into transferring next year’s spring calves. Just a reminder, don’t forget to catch your breath once and a while and watch that calf in the pasture, high-tailing it, as the day cools down, while the sun is starting to set. It is one of the best rewards for choosing this lifestyle and working as hard as we do.

Another way to recharge those batteries might be to take on new challenges in your daily business. Don’t let this surprise you, but IVF might just do that. It possesses many opportunities at many different levels. From conducting dominant follicle reduction (DFR) on cows to set them up, to ovum pick-up (OPU), and also transferring the returning embryos, IVF has really gained momentum in the past few years. Therein lie many opportunities. Thawing or unpacking fresh and transferring IVF embryos should be simple for those of you handling any amount of embryos. DFR can be a little more of a challenge and investment, but rewarding once the skill is learned. And OPU is an even greater challenge and financial investment for those of you up to the task. All you have to do is decide how much you want to be involved. (more…)

Catching Up with Dr. Reuben Mapeltoft

Categories: Catching Up
Tags: No Tags
Comments: Comments Off
Published on: June 30, 2017

The Early Days and School of Hard Knocks

Most of what I know about bovine embryo transfer, I learned by making a mistake. Matt has convinced me that I should bare my soul, so here goes.

In the early days, we were using Rusch catheters to collect embryos. They were a great improvement over Foley catheters, but they were very expensive. Because of cost, we resisted autoclaving; we simply washed and dried and rinsed with alcohol and sterile saline just before use. At an early IET meeting, Peter Elsden convinced me we should be sterilizing our catheters with ethylene oxide, which we subsequently did. That year, our pregnancy rates dropped to around 30%. We then learned that certain plastic syringes were also a problem and we were using syringes to collect embryos and hold media. We never did figure out our problem, but our pregnancy rates recovered the following year. We subsequently did a lot of work with ethylene oxide as a means of sterilizing equipment, and we found that there are a lot of ways you can kill embryos with it. I am told it also kills people.

Uli Schneider from Hanover, Germany, taught us how to cryopreserve embryos in 1980. We were using glycerol in those days and so we had to move embryos through six dilutions after thawing and before transfer. Uli had a little device with a gear mechanism that he used to aspirate very small quantities of medium, and he left it with us to use when we were moving embryos through glycerol dilutions. I was not very familiar with it, having used a 1-mL syringe and a tom cat catheter most of the time. In any case, I decided Uli knew best, and one morning I thawed a set of embryos for transfer on farm. While I was in the midst of transferring embryos from one solution to the next, something happened in the lab and my attention was distracted. When we finally had things sorted out, I looked down and couldn’t find the embryos. I had aspirated them all up into the gear mechanism in the aspiration device. It wasn’t until I had made several other mistakes like this that I decided that I had to keep unnecessary people out of the lab.

When I was first involved with this business, I often found myself in difficult situations, and instead of saying “no, we can’t do this,” I carried on. I have often referred to this as how I lost embryos.

On one occasion, I flew to Vermont to collect a cow for a colleague, and when I arrived at the farm I realized that all I had was a cow and no help or facilities. I finally ended up setting up my microscope on the milk tank. Things were not very stable, but I did find a nice morula and an unfertilized egg. Then things started to go wrong. I upset the egg dish on the milk tank and spilled its contents. I aspirated all the media I could find on the surface of the milk tank and found one structure, the unfertilized egg. On another occasion, we had to set up outside on a beef farm with no table or chairs, so we set a sheet of plywood on two straw bales. With the first cow, we recovered more than 20 excellent embryos, and I was feeling pretty good as I was collecting the second cow, which also had responded very well. Then, things went downhill. My technician came up to me and whispered, “How do I get the embryos out of the straw?” I responded, “What? We are not ready to transfer yet.” You guessed it, she wasn’t talking about loading straws. On yet another occasion, we set up a table for our microscopes in a large calving barn and used trimming chutes to restrain cows for the embryo recovery procedure. One cow went a little crazy and wrecked the trimming chute and started running around the calving barn; everyone scattered while she headed for the table with the microscopes (and embryos). This story has a happy ending; she sniffed the first microscope, turned around, and ran the other direction.

I have learned some things about nitrogen tanks in this business as well. We used to travel great distances, often late at night, as we drove from one farm to another, and the roads were frequently not very good. On one occasion, I hit a tremendous pothole as I was driving much too fast on a back road; I was lucky I didn’t hit the ditch. When I arrived at my destination I unloaded my equipment, and although it really didn’t register, I noticed that there was frost at the top of the nitrogen tank. I imagined how the nitrogen had been sloshing around on those rough roads (I actually had one tip over once). In any case, the following morning, I realized the tank was dry. There wasn’t just one collection in that tank either. I learned a very real lesson: if you see frost, get worried.

These are just a small sample of mistakes I have made over the years. However, I did learn through the school of hard knocks. I challenge others to top mine.

Reuben
Reuben J. Mapletoft
Distinguished Professor Emeritus
Department of Large Animal Clinical Sciences
Western College of Veterinary Medicine
University of Saskatchewan
Saskatoon, SK S7N 5B4
Cell: (306) 222-6152
Fax: (306) 966-7159

Summer’s Heat Stroke

Categories: Practice Tips
Tags: No Tags
Comments: Comments Off
Published on: June 30, 2017

By Mid Maryland Dairy Veterinarians

Summer is finally here!  With summer upon us, the Mid-Atlantic region can look forward to the 3 H’s:  Hazy, Hot, and Humid.  We should not be surprised to witness one of those epic heat waves with scorching hot and dangerously high heat indexes close to 110F. Heat stroke is a dangerous condition that cattle can experience during a heat wave.  Do we need an epic heat wave to create heat stroke?  Absolutely not!  Exertion from calving, disease, and poor facility ventilation/heat abatement can induce heat stroke.  You need to be able to recognize the animal experiencing heat stroke, treat it quickly, and take steps to minimize the risk of heat stress.

(more…)

Exporting Efficiency

Categories: Practice Tips
Tags: No Tags
Comments: Comments Off
Published on: June 30, 2017

EXPORTING EFFICIENCY

Are your records accurate?

QUARANTINE!

We’ve all heard it, and most have experienced it in one way or another.

As traceability becomes more of an issue, registration numbers are very important. Complete registration numbers; leaving zeros out of an 840 registration number will land you in quarantine. Forgetting the CAN in front of a Canadian registration number or USA in front of the USA registration numbers can end up in quarantine as well. Including official ear tag numbers on testing is also important and required by the USDA.

Exporters ask for a D form copy to make sure the numbers and names are correct: Exactly correct. It is a simple task to verify this information on the individual breed website. This is the first thing done in the export preparation process. Holstein (http://www.holsteinusa.com/hol/animalSearch.action), Jersey, Angus, Hereford, and Wagyu, to name a few, all have easily accessible websites. Leaving out an –ET can be as much of a problem as unnecessarily adding it. Misspelling is another common issue, especially with shortened registered names. For the Holstein 840 numbers, make sure it matches the official pedigree (84000…), even though it is shown at least three different ways on their website.

(more…)

AETA Practice Tip

Categories: Practice Tips
Tags: No Tags
Comments: Comments Off
Published on: June 30, 2017

By Marianna Jahnke and Tyler Dohlman

When transferring embryos it is important to be quick and keep your cane 3 inches below the frost line in the neck of the tank while trying not to burn your fingers and not exposing or potentially damaging the neighboring straws in the cane. One of the practices that makes our lives easier when transferring embryos is the ability to remove the straw from the cane without having to completely remove the top goblet from the cane. Not only is it easier and quicker, but we do not have to worry about potentially exposing or damaging other straws a second time when putting the top goblet back on to the appropriate cane.

(more…)

Understanding Cervical Disc Herniations and What To Do About Them

Categories: Catching Up, Practice Tips
Tags: No Tags
Comments: Comments Off
Published on: June 30, 2017

By Meredith Griffin PT, DPT

C6/7 Posterior

In the image you can see what many hope to never see on their MRI, a spinal disc herniation or herniated nucleus pulposis (HNP). For decades it was believed that if you had an HNP you were doomed for surgery and all you could do is hope that the results of the surgery were good (decreased pain, improved sensation, etc). Our society has developed a one track mind in wanting a quick fix and thinking that the only way to manage a problem like this is to go under the knife and cut it out. More recent research has shown that alt-hough there my be “abnormal” findings on various imaging, that does not justify surgery despite the fact that the many surgeons use this as their rational. In fact, we are finding that it is more abnormal to not have changes on imaging, or what are being called by some experts as “wrinkles on the inside.” If you have any “abnormal” findings on your x-ray, MRI, CT scan, etc, I would like to congratulate you on being just like the vast majority of the human population. These are considered age-related changes and are normal. Any-thing from arthritis to stenosis to disc herniations are all part of the normal aging process and are a result of being mobile organisms. Imaging studies have found that arthritic changes have been noted and can begin in the human body as early as the mid-20’s. More studies have also found little to no correlation between find-ings on imaging and patient reports of symptoms and pain levels. The problem becomes when pain impedes our lifestyles.

(more…)

Evaluation of in vitro-produced bovine embryos

Categories: Research Publications
Tags: No Tags
Comments: Comments Off
Published on: June 30, 2017

2015 CETA/ACTE & AETA JOINT CONVENTION – NIAGARA FALLS, ONTARIO

SESSION: IVP vs IVD EMBRYO EVALUATION

Evaluation of in vitro-produced bovine embryos

Jennifer Barfield, Ph.D.

Animal Reproduction and Biotechnology Lab, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO

At the 2014 joint meeting of the American and Canadian Embryo Transfer Associations, I presented a pre-conference symposium on bovine embryo grading in an interactive forum where participants provided real-time feedback on how they would grade embryos of various stages and qualities. One aspect of grading touched on was the difference between in vitro-produced (IVP) and in vivo- derived (IVD) embryos. When asked whether the attendees believed we need separate grading systems for these two types of embryos, the crowd was split with 47% of respondents supporting the development of a new system and 53% believing it is not needed. Here I will review some of the challenges involved with grading IVP and IVD embryos, the implications of these challenges, and propose a method by which researchers and practitioners could collaborate to gather data that can be easily shared and used to develop a concensus on the best guidelines for grading IVP embryos.

(more…)

AETA Articles of Interest

Categories: Research Publications
Tags: No Tags
Comments: Comments Off
Published on: June 30, 2017

Relationship between circulating progesterone at timed-AI and fertility in dairy cows subjected to GnRH-based protocols

Lipid profiles of follicular fluid from cows submitted to ovarian superstimulation

Corrigendum to “Reducing treatments in cattle superovulation protocols by combining a pituitary extract with a 5% hyaluronan solution: Is it able to diminish activation of the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal axis compared to the traditional protocol?” [Theriogenology 85 (2016) 914–921]

Downsizing cumulus cell layers to improve cryotolerance of germinal vesicle-stage bovine oocytes

Evaluation of shortened timed-AI protocols for resynchronization of ovulation in multiparous Holstein dairy cows

Effects of rumen-protected methionine and choline supplementation on steroidogenic potential of the first postpartum dominant follicle and expression of immune mediators in Holstein cows

Effects of d-cloprostenol on different layers and regions of the bovine uterus during the follicular and luteal phases

Cryosurvival of in vitro produced bovine embryos supplemented with l-Carnitine and concurrent reduction of fatty acids

Save the Date for #Orlando!!

Categories: Annual Meeting
Tags: No Tags
Comments: Comments Off
Published on: June 30, 2017

 

Save the Date for the 2017 AETA-CETA/ACTE Annual Meeting!

 

The 2017 AETA-CETA/ACTE will be held from October 26–28, 2017, in Orlando, Florida. The conference will be held and the Caribe Royale Orlando Suites and Villas. Please use the link to get a special rate for attendees and guests of the Conference.

While scientific content and symposia are still being planned, it is safe to say that Orlando is an exciting destination to host this event. Below you will find some links to help you plan your stay while at the Conference. The Caribe Royale is a Walt Disney World Good Neighbor Hotel. There will be representatives on site to sell discounted park tickets and offer transportation to the parks, water parks, Disney Springs, and golf courses.

Walt Disney World® area – 1.5 miles
International Drive – 1 mile
SeaWorld Orlando® – 6 miles
Universal Studios Resort™ – 10 miles

Discovery Cove ® – 5 miles

Old Town – 4 miles

Celebration Town – 5 miles

This is a very small list of the many attractions that Orlando has to offer. Please check out Visit Orlando to customize your stay.

We look forward to seeing you all in sunny Florida in October!

Sincerely,

AETA

page 1 of 1
Welcome , today is Sunday, September 15, 2019