Comment on requirements for donors of embryos exporting USA to Australia

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Published on: July 6, 2018

by Pat Comyn
AETA Education Committee Chair

I recently collected embryos from a donor for export of those embryos to Australia. As part of the visit, I collected both an EDTA tube and a red top blood tube for submission for BVD (Bovine Pestivirus) testing in keeping with section 4 (below) of the Australian embryo import requirements.

I wanted to do an ELISA due to lower cost and turn around being faster compared to the VI. However, I had not heard of an ELISA for BVD being done on peripheral WBC (Buffy coat) and suspected that the description of the ELISA test in the IREGs was in error (the Australia IREGs was updated 4/18). After consultation with Pat Phillips, DVM (Hawkeye Breeders – embryo exporter), David Duxbury, DVM (AETA Government Liaison Committee Chair) and their inquiries to APHIS – Madison WI, we found that BVD ELISA on whole unclotted blood was being done at Indiana Animal Disease Diagnostic Laboratory / Purdue University College of Veterinary Medicine. The results of the whole blood ELISA are acceptable for export to Australia. The client savings for the buffy coat ELISA were considerable as compared to viral isolation and the turn around was excellent (one day VS 2 weeks).

Section 4 is below.

4Bovine pestivirus

Prior to the export of this consignment of embryos each female donor gave a negative result to one of the following tests for bovine pestivirus:

  • an antigen-capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) on peripheral blood leucocytes

or

  • a virus isolation test on blood or serum

[The veterinary certificate must indicate the option that applies. The table must include dates of sampling for test, type of tests used, test results.]

Vitamin Importance for Reproduction

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Published on: July 6, 2018

by Cole Ratzburg
AETA Education Committee
B.S. M.S. Reproductive Physiology

Hopefully everyone is having a good summer and getting plenty of rain. Since I had an article on trace minerals a couple issues ago I figured I would write an article on the importance of vitamins for reproduction. All though the effect vitamins have on reproduction aren’t as well known as trace minerals, they still have an important role in positively affecting reproduction in cattle. Essentially vitamins can be broken down into water soluble and fat-soluble forms. The fat-soluble vitamins A, D, E, and K are more important for cattle due to their availability in the diet. Fat soluble vitamins do not need to be supplemented daily and can be supplied via mineral programs or in an injectable form.

Vitamin D is important for calcium, phosphorus metabolism, and bone growth but due to cows being able to synthesize vitamin D from sunlight it is not as critical to supplement in the long daylight hours. During the winter months with short daylight hours and depending on the forage available, cows may need more vitamin D. Vitamin A deals with vision, reproduction, and immune function. Levels fluctuate based on their availability in feed throughout the year. Vitamin A’s main role is to maintain the epithelial tissue found in areas like the lining of the reproductive tract. Vitamin A is available in ample amounts in the spring and summer months through green leafy forages. Cattle coming off the summer grass typically have a 2-3-month storage of vitamin A. The amount of vitamin A in the forage can fluctuate based on the quality of the forage and how it was processed.

I think the biggest effect that vitamin deficiencies have on embryo production is during the fall and winter months. Any flushes/transfers that occur in the winter and fall time may need cows to have good supplementation of vitamins A and D due to their limited availability.

Practice Tip

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Published on: July 6, 2018

by Pay Comyn
AETA Education Committee Chair

I saw a good reminder of dangers of using frozen cold pacs to chill down fresh transported embryos. A client accidentally froze several syringes of rabies vaccine meant for their cattle by placing the syringes directly on frozen ice packs. So embryo straws with holding solution placed directly on frozen ice packs would be risky. When using frozen ice packs to keep fresh embryos cool, one should place cloth or paper over the ice packs to protect the embryos.

Use of FSH in two different regimens for ovarian superstimulation prior to ovum pick up and in vitro embryo production in Holstein cows

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Published on: July 6, 2018

Authors: Júlio César Barboza da Silva, Roberta Machado Ferreira, Milton Maturana Filho, Julianne de Rezende Naves, Thiago Santin, Guilherme Pugliesi, Ed Hoffmann Madureira

Publication: Theriogenology

Publisher: Elsevier

Date of Publication: 1 March, 2017

Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28166990

Effects of Ovum Pick‐up Frequency and FSH Stimulation: A Retrospective Study on Seven Years of Beef Cattle In Vitro Embryo Production

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Published on: July 6, 2018

Authors: R De Roover, JMN Feuganf, PEJ Bois, G Genicot, Ch Hanzen

Publication: Reproduction in Domestic Animals

Publisher: John Wiley and Sons

Date: Mar 6, 2008

Link: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1439-0531.2007.00873.x

Superstimulation prior to the ovum pick-up to improve in vitro embryo production in lactating and non-lactating Holstein cows

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Published on: July 6, 2018

Authors: L.M. Vieira, C.A. Rodrigues, A. Castro Netto, B.M. Guerreiro, C.R.A. Silveira, R.J.C. Moreira, M.F. Sá Filho, G.A. Bó, R.J. Mapletoft, P.S. Baruselli

Publication: Theriogenology

Publisher: Elsevier

Date of Publication: 15 July 2014

Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24839924

Short communication: Follicle superstimulation before ovum pick-up for in vitro embryo production in Holstein cows

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Published on: July 6, 2018

Authors: Louise H. Oliveira, Carlos P. Sanches,Adriano S. Seddon, Marcio B. Veras, Flávio A. Lima, Pedro L.J. Monteiro, Milo C. Wiltbank, Roberto Sartori

Publication: Journal of Dairy Science

Publisher: Elsevier

Date of Publication: November 2016

Link: https://www.journalofdairyscience.org/article/S0022-0302(16)30571-9/pdf

Articles of Interest

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Published on: July 6, 2018

In vitro sperm quality and DNA integrity of SexedULTRA sex-sorted sperm compared to non-sorted bovine sperm

 

Angiocoupling between the dominant follicle and corpus luteum during waves 1 and 2 in Bos taurus heifers

 

Improved uterine immune mediators in Holstein cows supplemented with rumen-protected methionine and discovery of neutrophil extracellular traps (NET)

 

Hormonal strategy to reduce suckled beef cow handling for timed artificial insemination with sex-sorted semen

 

Differential release of cell-signaling metabolites by male and female bovine embryos cultured in vitro

 

Synchronization treatments previous to natural breeding anticipate and improve the pregnancy rate of postpartum primiparous beef cows

 

Heat-shock-induced cathepsin B activity during IVF and culture compromises the developmental competence of bovine embryos

 

Associations between dairy cow inter-service interval and probability of conception

 

μ-Calpain (CAPN1), calpastatin (CAST), and growth hormone receptor (GHR) genetic effects on Angus beef heifer performance traits and reproduction

 

Assessment of the temperature cut-off point by a commercial intravaginal device to predict parturition in Piedmontese beef cows

 

Variations in bovine embryo production between individual donors for OPU-IVF are closely related to glutathione concentrations in oocytes during in vitro maturation

 

Eventual re-vitrification or storage in liquid nitrogen vapor does not jeopardize the practical handling and transport of vitrified pig embryos

 

Cryopreservation and in vitro culture of white-tailed deer ovarian tissue

 

Preparation, characterization and application of long-acting FSH analogs for assisted reproduction

 

Aromatase inhibitors: A new approach for controlling ovarian function in cattle

 

Pursuit of a method for single administration of pFSH for superstimulation in cattle: What we have learned

 

Progesterone-releasing devices for cattle estrus induction and synchronization: Device optimization to anticipate shorter treatment durations and new device developments

 

Potential of connected devices to optimize cattle reproduction

 

Vaginal temperature measurement by a wireless sensor for predicting the onset of calving in Japanese Black cows

 

Effect of different chorionic gonadotropins on final growth of the dominant follicle in Bos indicus cows

 

Effect of different shipping temperatures (∼22 °C vs. ∼7 °C) and holding media on blastocyst development after overnight holding of immature equine cumulus-oocyte complexes

 

A recovery time after warming restores mitochondrial function and improves developmental competence of vitrified ovine oocytes

 

Additional small dose of prostaglandin F at timed artificial insemination failed to improve pregnancy risk of lactating dairy cows

 

The relationship between external auditory canal temperature and onset of estrus and ovulation in beef heifers

 

Follicular response and oocyte production following variations in ovarian stimulation in goats

 

Inhibition of apoptosis by caspase inhibitor Z-VAD-FMK improves cryotolerance of in vitro derived bovine embryos

 

Promoter variants of OAS1 gene are associated with reproductive performance and incidence of normal calving in cattle

 

The ability to predict pregnancy loss in cattle with ELISAs that detect pregnancy associated glycoproteins is antibody dependent

 

http://www.sciencemag.org/news/2018/02/first-cow-embryonic-stem-cells-could-lead-healthier-more-productive-livestock

March 2018 President’s Letter

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Published on: April 10, 2018

Let me begin by thanking Dr. Mark James for his leadership and guidance this past year as president of our association. I would also like to thank Dr. John Schneller as an the outgoing board member for his service on the board. I would like to welcome and congratulate the newly elected board members: Dr. William Croushore and Dr. Jeremy VanBoening.

I especially thank Charles Looney, PhD, for his efforts in putting together a conference that was second to none in Orlando this past year. Thanks to our membership, the conference was well attended, the venue was beautiful, and the weather was fantastic.

I would also like to thank all of the volunteers who serve and who have served on the AETA’s various committees. It is the work of the committees that is the backbone of the organization.

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AETA Education Committee Update

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Published on: April 10, 2018

Happy spring (I am writing this as the snow falls) from the Education Committee of AETA. Although I worked the two months of February and March, they seem a blur; influenza and the accompanying ailments following an immunosuppressive virus made me unenthusiastic about getting after the update for the newsletter. As of this date, we have started getting busy with spring work and setting up donors and recipients for show season, and so on. A few things have crossed my mind regarding ET that I will lay out.

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My IVF incubator is late….now what?

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Published on: April 10, 2018

By Jon Schmidt (Trans Ova Genetics)

An unfortunate reality with IVF is the occasional need to utilize commercial shipping companies in the transportation of oocytes to and embryos from the IVF lab.  Many of us who work with IVF shipments have experienced a delayed, lost, or cold incubator.  These are unfortunate events that can be catastrophic to results and end in frustrated lab staff, transfer teams, and clients.  Below are a few suggestions on how to handle incubators that are compromised in transit while embryos are going back to the practitioner or client’s farm.

d0 = OPU day
d1 = fertilization day
d7 = normal transfer day

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AETA Practice Tip: Placing CIDR

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Published on: April 10, 2018

By Tyler Dohlman (Iowa State University)

For most of us practitioners, CIDR have become a staple in our reproductive programs and will continue to be as long as they are effective. Whether they are used on donors or recipients or in artificial insemination protocols, they allow us to manipulate the estrous cycle for various needs. However, everyone has had a time when the number of CIDR put in does not match the number found when it comes time to retrieve them. This scenario can happen in a few instances: (1) we did not actually place a CIDR in the first place or (2) they fell out or were pulled out prior. CIDR, in general, should not come out sporadically, and if they do, it is usually because of poor or haphazard placement. Therefore, the latter scenario in which they are getting pulled out is more likely. In our experience, heifers are the problem child group. Heifers, curious in nature, and especially Holsteins, are all too accustomed to making our lives much more difficult by helping us pull CIDR out before our protocol says.

To mitigate this issue, I was taught at some point in my career to clip the blue attached string short. However, I usually forget to grab scissors or a knife to do such modifications to the CIDR at placement. Conveniently enough, I was taught a different modification to hide that all-too-enticing blue string. The modification is simple and easy, and rarely, if ever, do we lose CIDR in those curious Holstein heifers anymore.

If you have ever looked at a CIDR, there is a hole the same size as the blue string on the base of the CIDR. All you have to do is flip the blue string in the hole before placing the CIDR in the applicator. This hides the blue string and conveniently creates a looped handle for removal. In our hands, this modification has worked on our farms with heifers. Clients are less adaptive to this new method because they cannot see the blue string to confirm the CIDR is still in place, but the persuasive nature in me explains that if a CIDR were to fall out prior to protocol, it could prevent an ET or AI pregnancy. Caution: we commonly do this in cows also, and sometimes the blue string handle is in just a little too far and is out of reach. Then trans-rectal palpation guidance is needed to push the CIDR closure to the vulvar opening for retrieval.

On that note, I hope this helps someone and that you never lose another CIDR.

December 2017 President’s Letter

Categories: President's Message
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Published on: December 27, 2017

What a great conference in Orlando! Good weather, comfortable and spacious accommodations, and a host of excellent speakers made this meeting one of the best ever. Furthermore, as I look through the over 100 surveys received, it appears that you felt the same way. The feedback you provide is crucial to providing educational and applicable future meetings of value to those in attendance. Keep up the good work!

We also have good news related to the facility inspections for Chinese export. This long anticipated procedure is now underway! Although starting late in the year, this process is in very capable hands and should move right along. And, I have been assured that no approved facility will have their status expire while awaiting inspection. Many thanks to all those involved who worked very hard to make this happen.

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8 Questions You May Have About Cryopreserving Bovine In Vivo–Derived Embryos

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Published on: December 27, 2017

John F. Hasler
Jfhasler05@msn.com
John.hasler@vetoqinol.com
Cell: 970-222-5302

Dr. Pat Comyn, the new chair of the AETA Education Committee, asked me to write a short piece clarifying some issues concerning the cryopreservation of bovine embryos for inclusion in the December issue of A Closer Look. The AETA has come a long way since our humble beginnings in 1983, and our 2017 membership now totals 556, including a large increase in the number of new members. The following facts and suggestions will be of most interest to our new and less experienced members. Not only are there many variables involved in successfully freezing and thawing bovine embryos, there also are many variations on most of the steps that do not notably detract from success rates. Having worked with many ET practitioners in 17 different states and a number of foreign countries, I have a pretty good idea of what works well and what does not. The following points are either based on published data that I deem to be replicable or based on my own experience and observations. Please feel free to contact me should you want advice or clarification.

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VitaFerm Article: Preparing Cows for Embryo Transfer

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Published on: December 27, 2017

Prepare Cows for Embryo Transfer

Embryo transfer (E.T.) is an important tool to propagate outstanding genetic influence within the herd, with the potential to produce multiple offspring of the same mating in the same year. Because of the time, labor and expense involved in creating these genetics, we reached out to Trans Ova Genetics, a leader in reproductive technologies, to provide useful information to prepare your cows for a successful E.T. program.

According to Trans Ova, successful E.T. programs require intensive management and attention to detail. The results you achieve are highly variable and the level of success is based on your ability to manage all aspects of the operation.

Get Your Recips Ready

Preparing recipient cows for their role of carrying and growing the embryo is not a lot different than preparing cows to be bred naturally. You want to keep them in a low-stress environment, be consistent in daily management practices, give all vaccinations prior to estrus and make sure their nutrition program is supplemented with high levels of trace minerals like copper, zinc and manganese that impact reproductive success.

“Nutrition is without a doubt one of the most important areas of donor and recipient management,” said Jon Schmidt, DVM and Chief Operations Officer at Trans Ova. “First of all, I believe the nutritional management of your cattle needs to be a year-long process. Attention should be placed on meeting their demands for the entire season including gestation and lactation.”

The most critical and demanding time however, includes the month before calving through the first three to four months after calving. This is the most stressful and nutritionally demanding time to allow that cow to produce a healthy calf via colostrum production, begin lactation to raise that calf and become pregnant.

Reproduction is not an essential process in survivability of that cow, and consequently suffers first if nutritional needs are not met. Maintenance and milk production will partition available energy supplies with reproduction suffering at their expense. Therefore, it is critical to meet their requirements. Ensure cows are fed a high-quality mineral especially one that optimizes zinc, selenium and copper as they are critical for successful embryo transfer outcomes. Avoid rations that are high in distiller’s byproducts or sulfur-containing forages. Avoid diets high in Urea.

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New Directors Elected to the AETA Board of Directors

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Published on: December 27, 2017

At the 2017 AETA & CETA/ACTE Joint Annual Convention, two new directors were elected to the AETA Board of Directors. Their terms will start on January 1st, 2018. William Croushore, DVM, and Jeremy VanBoening, DVM, are the two new representatives:

Dr. Bill Croushore attended veterinary school at the Virginia-Maryland Regional College of Veterinary Medicine (Virginia Tech), graduating in 1997.  Prior to veterinary school, Dr. Croushore attended Duquesne University School of Pharmacy and graduated in 1992.  He practiced pharmacy in southwest Virginia until he was accepted into veterinary school in 1993.  Dr. Croushore was raised in Ruffsdale, Westmoreland County in southwest Pennsylvania.
Dr. Croushore’s professional interests include embryo transfer, pushing the limits of on farm OPU, herd health management and bovine surgery.  Dr. Croushore has been AETA Certified since 2012.  He has been an accredited OPU partner for Boviteq since 2014.

Dr. Croushore holds membership in the following professional organizations:  American Veterinary Medical Association, Pennsylvania Veterinary Medical Association, American Association of Bovine Practitioners, Society for Theriogenology, American Embryo Transfer Association and the International Embryo Transfer Society. In addition, Dr. Croushore is the treasurer for the Somerset County Holstein Association and is a member of the Berlin-Brothersvalley School District Ag Advisory Committee.

Dr. Croushore writes a weekly column in the Somerset Daily American entitled “The View from the Back 40” and a monthly column in Farm, Field and Garden.  He is also a regular contributor to Pinzgauer Journal and also the Keystone Cattleman.

He enjoys time with his family, hunting the often elusive whitetail deer, fishing and home brewing beer.  Dr. Croushore is married to his wife of 22 years, Sheila and the proud father of Nolan and Bena.  He attends St. Peter’s Roman Catholic Church where he teaches 8th grade CCD class.

 

Jeremy VanBoening received his BS degree from University of Nebraska-Lincoln in Animal Science in 1998 and his DVM from Kansas State University in 2002. He practiced in South Dakota one year before purchasing a 2 doctor practice in Alma, NE in 2003.  The practice has grown and changed over the years and currently has 5 doctors and 12 support staff. In 2010 Republican Valley Genetics was founded to provide ET services for the clinic and is the focus of Dr. VanBoening today. RVG provides in house and on farm ET services as well as serves as a satellite center for IVF services with Trans Ova Genetics.

Jeremy has served on several professional boards and committees including the Nebraska Cattlemen, National Cattlemen’s Beef Association, American Association of Bovine Practitioners, and Nebraska Veterinary Medical Association.  These associations have allowed him experience with domestic and international trade, policy making both at the state and federal level, sustainability in the beef industry and bovine veterinarian practice, as well as the opportunity for contacts throughout the industry.  Professional memberships include AETA, IETS, AABP, AVC, AVMA, and NVMA.

Jeremy and his wife Erin have one son William who is 10 years old.  In addition to the RVAC and RVG they run 400 beef cows comprised of a commercial cow-calf and a growing recipient herd.  He feels it would be an honor to serve the organization that gave him the knowledge and confidence to begin and grow the embryo transfer business.

 

The Role of Trace Minerals in Beef Cattle Fertility

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Published on: December 27, 2017

Ratzburg, Cole, The Role of Trace Minerals in Beef Cattle Fertility, M.S., Department of Animal Science, August 2017.

The most important economic factor influenced by trace mineral deficiencies is impaired reproductive performance in both the male and female. Copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), and manganese (Mn) have been shown to improve fertility in male and female beef cattle due to their roles in vitamin synthesis, hormone production, enzyme activity, collagen formation, tissue synthesis, oxygen transport, energy production, and other physiological processes related to growth, reproduction, and health. A new form of trace minerals called hydroxy minerals, which is a hydrolyzed inorganic metal complex, has been shown to have a greater bioavailability than sulfate minerals and similar bioavailability compared with the organic trace minerals. The idea that hydroxy trace minerals could be more available to beef cattle led us to hypothesize that use of hydroxy forms of Cu, Zn, and Mn could improve fertility in male and female beef cattle that are transitioning into the pubertal phase. The objectives of the two studies were to determine whether the use of hydroxy trace minerals could improve fertility parameters related to both the male and female beef cow. Peripubertal bulls were supplemented with hydroxy forms of Cu or Zn or Cu and Zn or no Cu and Zn in an 83-day mineral trial to determine whether there were differences in liver, blood plasma, and semen mineral concentrations and subsequently breeding soundness exam parameters, sperm morphology, and flow cytometer analysis. Results showed the use of Cu and Zn had benefits for fertility; there was improvements in flow cytometer parameters and sperm morphology. Heifers were supplemented with sulfate and hydroxy forms of Cu, Zn, and Mn to determine whether the different forms of trace minerals could affect feed intake parameters such as average daily gain, dry matter intake, residual feed intake, and feed-to-gain ratio and the fertility parameters: percent cycling and percent conception. Results indicated that there were no differences in feed intake parameters between treatments, but there was a positive benefit observed with the hydroxy trace minerals on conception percentage.

 

Upcoming: Newsletter Tags

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Published on: December 27, 2017

AETA Members,

With another year of AETA’s quarterly newsletter, A Closer Look, coming to a close, the education committee has been reflecting on the wealth of knowledge that can be found in earlier editions of the newsletter.

To make it easier to search the electronic archives of A Closer Look, the education committee will be adding tags to previous newsletter articles. In doing so, members can better use the AETA site’s existing search engine to find information on topics that may relate to them.

The newsletter article tags will be an ongoing process, so keep checking back!

Sincerely,

The AETA Education Committee

Articles of Interest

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Published on: December 27, 2017

Comparison of pregnancy outcomes using either an Ovsynch or a Cosynch protocol for the first timed AI with liquid or frozen semen in lactating dairy cows

 

Holding immature bovine oocytes in a commercial embryo holding medium: High developmental competence for up to 10 h at room temperature

 

Flunixin meglumine improves pregnancy rate in embryo recipient beef cows with an excitable temperament

 

Reproductive performance of lactating dairy cows after inducing ovulation using hCG in a five-day progesterone-based fixed-time AI protocol

 

Lupeol supplementation improves the developmental competence of bovine embryos in vitro

 

Effect of initial GnRH and time of insemination on reproductive performance in cyclic and acyclic beef heifers subjected to a 5-d Co-synch plus progesterone protocol

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AETA 2017 Scholarship Winner Report: Michael Campbell

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Published on: December 27, 2017

I would like to start by expressing my gratitude for the honor of being selected as a scholarship recipient. I graduated with my BS in animal science in 2015 thinking that was all the schooling I would do. I was fortunate enough to have the opportunity to work with an AETA-certified veterinarian flushing cattle and developed a strong passion for reproduction. This led to the decision to return to school to pursue a MS in reproductive physiology and hopefully go to vet school following completion. I am currently in my first semester of my MS and am working full time at an assisted reproduction facility in Stillwater, Oklahoma. I applied for the scholarship in hopes that I would be able to listen to experts in their respective fields discuss current research and findings. However, what I experienced was much more. Although the science sessions were very interesting and informative, the most influential aspect of the conference was the networking available. I met and spoke with many practitioners that were very kind and willing to spend time speaking with me and offering advice for my future endeavors. By far, my favorite part of the conference was the student mentor lunch session. Being able to sit down with professionals who were recently in our shoes was invaluable. I am extremely grateful to Dr. Prososki, Dr. Schmitt, and Dr. Swenson for spending the amount of time they did with us at the mentor lunch. The advice I received in that hour and a half was more significant than I could have ever imagined. The experiences and discussions I had at the conference have already had an effect on my academics, steering my master’s research in the direction of cryopreservation and complications during the freezing process, specifically the point at which embryos can be plunged and still maintain viability in the event of freezer failure. I would again like to express my gratitude to AETA and all the practitioners who were willing to speak with me throughout the conference for making me feel welcome and offering genuine advice to me and my fellow scholarship recipients.

Thank you,

Michael Campbell
Oklahoma State University

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